INDIVIDUAL TRAINING STANDARDS
MISSION PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE
Without the aid of references and in accordance with MCWP 3-35.3, conduct combat operations in an urban environment during times of limited visibility.
ENABLING LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. State the advantages of fighting in a built-up area during periods of limited visibility.
2. State the disadvantages of fighting in a built-up area during periods of limited visibility.
3. State the eight effects on night vision devices (NVDs).
4. State the seven planning considerations when fighting at night in a built-up area.
5. State the seven considerations of conducting night offensive operations in a built-up area.
6. State the eight considerations of conducting night defensive operations in a built-up area.
7. State the five considerations of conducting night security and patrolling operations in a built- up area.
METHOD AND MEDIA
This class will be taught through lecture.
This period of instruction will be tested during practical application exercises.
1. Advantages of Fighting at Night
a. The technological advantage over most potential enemies. Thermal imaging and light intensifying devices enable Marines to identify, engage and destroy enemy targets before these targets can detect Marine forces.
b. Marine training for night operations allow for around the clock operations and retention of the initiative during MOUT.
c. Combined with the reduction in direct fire ranges inherent to MOUT and the further reduction in target acquisition ranges at night, attacking forces should be able to close at a much closer distance before being detected by the enemy. This enables the attacker to take full advantage of the increase in weapons accuracy and lethality.
d. Heliborne assaults can take advantage of reduced visibility and the resulting degradation in the enemy's air defense capability.
e. The attacker can take advantage of reduced visibility to gain an edge by using the resulting increase in likelihood of surprise.
2, Disadvantages of Fighting at Night
a. Command and control, difficult in any MOUT scenario, are degraded during periods of reduced visibility.
b. Marines and Soldiers have an instinctive tendency to form groups during night combat operations. Constant attention must be given to prevent troops from "bunching up."
c. Disorientation is common at night.
d. Target identification becomes more difficult at night. This is a large concern in the prevention of fratricide.
3. The Effects of the Urban Environment on NVDs
The characteristics of built-up areas lend to a distinct affect on the capabilities of NVDs. Marines must be aware that the images received through NVDs while conducting MOUT may be unlike those in an open area of operations.
a. Street and building lights may "white out" any light intensification devices.
b. Any fires, common during MOUT, will disrupt light intensification and thermal devices.
c. Subterranean areas and the interiors of buildings will not have enough ambient light if there is no man-made light. Passive NVDs must have an artificial light source such as infrared in order to operate.
d. The many reflective surfaces found in built-up areas may cause false images. This is especially true for laser range finders and laser target designators.
e. Large amounts of dust particles suspended in the air and common to MOUT will degrade the effectiveness of thermal imaging devices.
f. Fog will degrade lang-range target acquisition utilizing thermal sights.
g. Weapon flashes within enclosed areas will appear much brighter than they really are. This may result in the loss of night vision and a "wash out" of light intensification devices.
4. Night Fighting Planning Considerations> a. Equipment - Decide on NVDs, illuminators, flashlights or a combination. What night vision devices will aid in the successful completion of the mission?
b. Concealment - Shine, shadow and vegetation. Use the urban surroundings to conceal routes and positions. Understand how shine and shadow deceive the eye.
c. Stealth, Surprise, and Deception - All are easier to attain at night.
d. Field Discipline - Noise, light and obvious positions. Insure noise and light discipline are used by all your Marines. Insure that positions do not alter the natural look (background) of an urban area.
e. Visibility and Lighting - Use lighting to your advantage - use it to the enemy's disadvantage.
f. Mission - Know your mission and the requirements to successfully complete it.
5. Offensive Operations at Night
a. Gaining a Foothold at Night - Use the night to deceive the enemy as to the location of the entry point.
b. Support and Security at Night - Use the night to conceal the support and security element.
c. Movement and Clearing Buildings and Rooms - Visibility tends to slow movement and clearing, remember to maintain combat momentum.
d. Clearing Hallways and Stairs - For security in a hallway NVGs are a must, as stairways tend to be dark during the day and even more so at night.
e. Stealth, Surprise, and Deception - All are much more attainable at night.
f. Advance Reconnaissance - A day reconnaissance is essential before conducting night operations. Map out the route and potential entry points.
g. Organization and Standing Operations Procedures (SOPs) - Extremely important, successful command and control rely on these. Training is also an essential part of conducting MOUT operations. Training to operate during MOUT is probably the number one key to success.
h. Control Measures - Infrared, chem lights, SOPs, far and near recognition signals, and any other control measure (situational dependent) should be used to assist in maneuvering a unit during urban combat operations. This is an essential factor in maintaining combat momentum. "Slow is Smooth, Smooth is Fast."
6. Defensive Operations at Night
a. Ensure light and noise discipline - it will save your life and the lives of your fellow Marines.
b. Insure defensive positions to not alter the natural "look" of the area.
c. Movement inside buildings should only be undertaken when absolutely necessary. Use covered and concealed routes. Blow holes in floors and walls to facilitate movement.
d. The use of observation posts (OPS) and listening posts (LPS) is essential in the advance warning of an impending attack. If at all possible, place OPs and LPs where all sides of a building are covered. Many times, two OPs/LPS can cover 360 degrees in the defense.
e. Crew served weapons emplacement is crucial. Know the basics in employment of these assets and adapt to the urban environment.
7. Security and Patrolling
a. Understand the task at hand and be organized to accomplish the mission.
b. The two techniques for moving outside buildings are single column and staggered column. ALWAYS maintain dispersion.
c. Stop, look and listen. Know your next position. Be prepared for the worst (but maintain complete situational awareness).
The MOUT Homepage Hot Links:
Own the Night! - Small Unit Fighter Manual (CALL)
Enter and Clear a Building and Enter and Clear a Room. (CALL, Own the Night)
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